Fats are a macronutrient required for many functions in the body. They help us absorb fat-soluble vitamins, start chemical reactions involved in growth, immune function, reproduction, and more. They also act as messengers for protein and make up part of every cell in our bodies.

Not getting enough fat can cause dry skin rashes, a weakened immune system, and can lead to deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins. Excess intake of fat leads to weight gain and an increased risk for multiple metabolic diseases like cancer and heart disease.

It is also important to pay attention to the types of fats consumed most often. A diet high in saturated fat can raise your LDL ‘bad’ cholesterol, which can increase your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Saturated fats can be found mostly in animal sources and coconut oils. Switching to eating less foods containing saturated fats and more foods containing unsaturated fat can improve your overall health. Unsaturated fats can increase HDL ‘good’ cholesterol, which grabs LDL out of your bloodstream and transports it to the liver where it can be eliminated from the body. This may lead to lower levels of LDL in your bloodstream. Unsaturated fats can improve blood cholesterol levels, ease inflammation, stabilize heart rhythms, and play a number of other beneficial roles. Unsaturated fats are predominantly found in foods from plants, such as vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds.

Sources of Saturated Fats (Bad Fats):

butter, ghee, suet, lard, coconut oil and palm oil, cakes, biscuits, fatty cuts of meat, sausages, bacon cured meats like salami, chorizo and pancetta, cheese, pastries, such as pies, quiches, sausage rolls and croissants, cream, crème fraîche and sour cream, ice cream, coconut milk and coconut cream milkshakes, chocolate and chocolate spreads.

Sources of Unsaturated Fats (Good Fats):

Olive, peanut, and canola oils, avocados, nuts such as almonds, hazelnuts, and pecans, seeds such as pumpkin and sesame seeds, sunflower, corn, soybean, and flaxseed oils, walnuts, flax seeds, fish, canola oil.




Proteins are a macronutrient that are also called the building blocks of life. Proteins are made up of amino acids that are used to repair and create new cells in the body. This includes muscle, skin, hair and organs. Protein also is a part of red blood cells that transport oxygen throughout your body and it is a part of enzymes that aid in healthy digestion and hormone regulation. Eating protein helps your body recover after exercise, helps maintain or build muscle, helps you maintain a healthy weight, and helps curb your appetite by making you feel full longer.

Protein should contribute between 10-35% of your daily caloric intake. Getting too little protein can lead to a host of health issues including muscle loss, swelling (edema), lowered immunity, brain fog, liver problems, lowered immunity, and problems with your hair, skin, and nails. Eating too much protein can also cause health problems. Excess protein is converted to fat and stored in the body, leading to weight gain. Excess protein can also negatively burden kidneys, can leach protein from your bones, can lead to kidney stones, and high protein/high meat diets may be associated with increased risk of cancer and heart disease.

When most people think of protein, they think of protein from animal sources. While lean protein, eggs, and milk are excellent sources of protein, there are also plant-based proteins that should be incorporated into a healthy diet. Plant based proteins include legumes (beans and peas), nuts and seeds, whole grains, and some vegetables, like soy. Plant based proteins can be an excellent source, but there are some nutrients that you need to focus on when eating a plant based diet. Vitamin B12, iron, zinc, omega-3 fatty acids, and vitamin D are more readily absorbed in the body from animal sources, so if you are following a plant-based diet, you should work closely with your dietitian to avoid nutrient deficiencies.

Healthy animal based proteins:

Fish, turkey, chicken, Lean cuts of beef, such as eye of round roast and steak, sirloin tip side steak, top round roast and steak, bottom round roast and steak, and top sirloin steak, pork loin and roasts, Eggs, Milk

Healthy plant based proteins:

Tofu, tempeh, and edamame, lentils, beans, nuts and seeds, seitan, whole grain bread, quinoa, beans and rice, vegetables higher in protein, such as broccoli, spinach, asparagus, artichokes, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and brussels sprouts




Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose. Glucose is used in your body as the main source of energy (fuel). It can either be used or stored for later use.

There are three main types of carbohydrates:

  1. Sugars – these are the most simple form of carbohydrates. They can be added to foods or can occur
    naturally in fruits, milk, and vegetables. Naturally occurring sugars, unlike refined sugars, often come with
    vitamins, minerals, and fiber that our bodies need.
  2. Starches – These are more complex. They are made up of groups of sugar molecules, which your body has
    to break down into smaller molecules. They can be found in breads, pastas, and cereals, as well as in starchy
    vegetables, like corn, potatoes, squash, and peas.
  3. Fiber – Fiber is also a complex carbohydrate. Most fiber cannot be broken down in your body, and some
    can only be broken down by gut bacteria. Fiber can help provide food for healthy gut bacteria, regulate
    bowel movements, reduce constipation, regulate blood sugar, and help you feel full longer. An adequate
    intake of fiber is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and reduced risk of obesity. It is a good idea
    to measure the amount of fiber you currently ingest and slowly increase to the recommended amount.
    Increasing fiber too quickly can cause gas, bloating, or cramping. Fiber can be soluble or insoluble. Soluble
    fiber may reduce blood sugar and cholesterol. Insoluble fiber can promote bowel health and regularity. It is
    important to get a variety of fiber so you can benefit from both of these types of fiber.
    Focus on getting complex carbohydrates more often than simple carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates
    contain more nutrients and fiber, so they help you feel full longer. Complex carbohydrates are also better for
    people who have type 2 diabetes because they help manage blood sugar spikes after a meal
Simple CarbohydratesComplex CarbohydratesHigh Fiber Foods
Baked goods (including bread)
made with white flour:
Cake, candy, candy bar, carbonated
drink, chocolate, cookie, corn syrup,
fruit juice, fruit preserve or jam,
fudge, honey, most packaged cereals, pasta made with white flour,
table sugar
Legumes including:
Beans, peas, lentils

Starchy vegetables including:
Corn, white potatoes, sweet potatoes,
green peas, beets, acorn squash,
butternut squash, turnips, carrots

Whole-grain and fibrous foods including: Brown rice, oatmeal, quinoa
Soluble fiber:
Beans, oats, apples, carrots, barley,
citrus fruits, psyllium, peas
Insoluble fiber:
Nuts, beans, vegetables, wheat
bran, whole wheat flour